(From the larger article “What’s the Evidence?“)
Nail #1 Mutation and Natural Selection—A Dead theory
Dr. John Sanford, a top genetics researcher from Cornell University (Credentials below), has discovered that that the genetic load caused by detrimental mutations is mounting up so quickly in large genomes that Darwin’s famous “natural selection” cannot reverse it. Therefore species are not getting better, but are being driven to extinction. He concludes that the driving force for evolution, which he refers to as the Primary Axiom of Evolution, is dead wrong. In his book, Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome, he says,
“If the genome must degenerate, then the Primary Axiom is wrong. It is not just implausible. It is not just unlikely. It is absolutely dead wrong. It is not just a false axiom. It is an unsupported and discredited hypothesis which can be confidently rejected. (P. 144.)
This is not just a nail in the evolutionary coffin, it is a spike. If we take solid research seriously, it sure seems like evolutionists should start planning the Funeral Service for Evolution!
Credentials: Dr. John Sanford
• Cornell University Professor and genetic researcher
• Published over 70 scientific articles
• Granted over 25 patents
• Co-inventor of the biolistic process (gene gun), pathogen-derived resistance, and genetic immunization
• Founded two biotech businesses, Biolistics, Inc., and Sanford Scientific, Inc.
Nail #2 Irreducible Complexity:
”Irreducible complexity” is a term coined by Michael Behe in his book, Darwin’s Black Box. It refers to a specific type of complexity in which highly integrated systems have multiple parts and reactions that work together only as a whole. Eliminating any one piece renders the entire system unworkable. (Behe uses a common mousetrap as an example.) Evolution supposedly operates by natural selection perfecting less-developed systems. However, in irreducibly complex systems, simpler systems don’t work at all, indicating that mutation and natural selection could not have produced them. Three examples follow which are condensed from Behe’s book.
Blood Clotting System: This system clearly shows evidence of irreducible complexity. Fibrin forms the main clot, but if present in quantity, it would produce spontaneous blood clots all over the body causing death. So fibrin must exist in an inactive form that needs to be activated. The activator and what activates it plus many more critical chemicals must also exist in inactive forms; otherwise one would activate the other causing death from unwanted clots. In other words, many crucial components are needed. All of them need to be activated to produce a blood clot. The whole system needs to be in place in the right order and working together or none of it works at all. This type of irreducibly complex system demands an Intelligent Designer! 5,6
The Immune System: Our amazing immune system defies evolutionary origin. Blood antibodies, the heroes, are equipped to (1) recognize and (2) destroy the antigens (germs) and still (3) tolerate the organism’s own components. The only way antibodies can destroy the foe is to have a matching molecular structure. This requires a tremendous diversity of antibodies to fit the many shapes of antigens. Since all of the system works or none of it works, evolution requires the simultaneous development and operation of all four of these critical factors before natural selection can preserve it. Besides that, when our immune system encounters something for which it has no matching molecular structure, it manufactures the precise structure in a way similar to a locksmith honing in on the right combination. The immune system couldn’t just happen! 5,7
Molecular Motors: If a bacterial cell could think, it would probably want to evolve an ability to propel itself to hunt food rather than wait for food to come to it. However, the mechanism that accomplishes this, called a molecular motor, defies evolutionary origins. Many parts resembling a complete motor with bearing, shaft and propeller all work together in this one-celled organism, all at a molecular level. If one part is missing or not functioning, none of it works at all. The whole assembly has to be fully functional for there to be any evolutionary selective advantage for the cell. Evolution can’t produce irreducibly complex systems like this which are even more efficient than our best electric motors. They point to a master designer.
Evolutionary Answer to Irreducible Complexity
Evolutionists, reluctant to fully realize the impact of this nail in the evolutionary coffin, suggest an explanation that AOI refers to as a “May Have, Might Have, Could Have” scenario. For more about the evolutionists’ answer to irreducible complexity and our response, please see our T&B 2009, vol 2 p3 – or the whole issue.
Nail #3 Laws of Probability:
The odds are enormously great against the successful occurrence of each of the myriads of needed evolutionary changes! Even the probability of 1 small protein occurring by accident is 1 chance out of 10 to the 260th power. (This can be compared to the odds of finding a blue marble in a universe filled with red marbles and doing it blindfolded three times in a row.) That is just not going to happen. Since we have thousands of even much larger proteins, it is even more inconceivable they all happened by chance. Even then, proteins are not life. The probability of forming a living cell by chance was calculated by an atheist and an agnostic as 1 chance out of 10 to the 40,000th power. They stated that it would be more likely for a tornado to sweep through a junkyard and assemble a jet aircraft! They were actually quoted in the Seattle Times as saying “There must be a God.” However, even though the evidence was inescapable, they said they were still looking for a way around their conclusions. (See Think & Believe, Vol. 2, Num. 3.) Dedication to naturalism has a strong grip on some people! Coupling these probabilities for proteins or cells with intricate structures like eyes, wings, hearts, lungs, etc., the laws of probability scream out, “Creation!”