“You have Anti-Freeze running through your veins, man!”

Posted on Sep 8, 2016 in Creation Nuggets | 0 comments

“In the frozen wastes of Siberia, an amazing salamander is able to survive in suspended animation for years, deep-frozen at temperatures as low as –50°C, only to thaw out and run off afterwards. Scientists are not yet sure of the exact mechanism, but, like some other animals, they almost certainly produce ‘anti-freeze’ chemicals to replace water in their tissues and cells. Some have been found buried in ice which is believed to be from the Pleistocene Age—12,000 years ago by evolutionary reckoning. Yet they still recovered when thawed out! Though researchers have discussed the idea of radiocarbon dating to test the idea that they could possibly be that old, they say that the creatures ‘probably fell to this depth much later, through deep cracks in the permafrost’.”   Carl Wieland, The Lost Squadron, Creation 19(3):10-14, June 1997, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/the-lost-squadron, accessed July 25, 2016. How salamanders survive the deep freeze, New Scientist 139(1890):15, September...

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Big Gap from Mice to Bats!

Posted on Sep 1, 2016 in Creation Nuggets | 0 comments

“For the sake of discussion, let’s say that mice evolved into bats. If this occurred, you would expect to find fossil mice and fossil bats, along with all the transitional forms (or intermediate animals) between the two, in the fossil record. A hypothetical example follows: Animal A (below) is the first step of a mouse changing into a bat. The animal looks like a mouse, but its arms are now longer than its legs. It will need these long arms to form the wings. Animal B is very unusual looking. It looks something like a mouse, but its fingers are longer than its elongated arms. These fingers will act as struts for the eventual wings of the bat. Animal C is developing enlarged muscles in new locations on its arms. A flying animal needs its strongest muscles for the movement of the wings. Animal D is developing a membrane on each arm. The membrane is not developed enough to allow the animal to fly because it is not yet attached to the body and back legs. Rather, the membrane is more like a loose cape. (See the picture of a bat’s wing membrane below.) Animal E is halfway to becoming a bat. It has wings, which are attached to the body, but the animal still cannot fly because the muscles for flying have not yet completely developed. Animal F‘s knees are starting to turn outward, like a modern bat’s knees. Walking is getting more difficult than before because of this awkward change in the legs and the extremely long fingers and arms. Animal G‘s knees are facing backward like a bat’s knees. Animal H is nearly all bat, but not quite. Its bones are still solid, rendering the animal too heavy to fly. Flying animals have hollow bones to make them lighter. This process has yet to take place before the final step of evolution into a bat.”   Werner, Dr. Carl (2014-04-01). Evolution: The Grand Experiment (3rd Edition) (Kindle Locations 1093-1108). New Leaf Press. Kindle Edition.  ...

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Symbiotic Evidence of Design

Posted on Nov 16, 2015 in Creation Nuggets | 0 comments

  “PBS 3 also describes the leaf-cutting ants of Brazil. They form colonies containing eight million insects, and they cut leaves into pieces and bring them to the nest, but they don’t eat them. Rather, other leafcutter ants mulch them and use the mulch to grow a fungus ‘garden.’ This fungus is used as food for the young leafcutters, which thus depend on the fungus for survival, but the fungus depends on the ants to provide the mulch. But this fungus garden has a ‘weed,’ a virulent mold that badly hinders the fungal growth. To combat this, some ants have a white waxy coating that is now known to be tangled mats of bacteria that produce antibiotics that kill the mold. Presumably, by this stage in the series, the producers hope that viewers are so indoctrinated in evolution that they don’t even need to try to produce evidence. To the diehard evolutionist, any phenomenon at all can be adduced as ‘evidence’ for evolution. In this case, they don’t bother to explain how such a complex symbiosis could have evolved, but merely assert that the bacteria and mold are products of an arms race lasting 50 million years.” From Jonathan Sarfati and Michael Matthews, Refuting Evolution 2: Chapter 4: Argument: Natural Selection Leads to Speciation, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-2-chapter-4-argument-natural-selection-leads-to-speciation, accessed August 6,...

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Ask Now The Beasts

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Kid's Think & Believe Too! | 0 comments

“Hey, kids! Head on out to the flower garden, while I get a book from the library,” said Mr. Jones.  “I want to show you some of God’s wonderful creatures.” “What’s up, Dad?” asked Billy. “This morning I was reading my Bible, and in Job, chapter 12, verse 7, it says, ‘But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee;’ I wondered, what could the animals teach me?” “Animals can’t talk, Dad.  How can they teach us anything?” asked Mary. “Actually Mary, some animals can communicate, even though they are not using our language.  However, I think by just looking at them we might learn something.  So here is what I want you to do.  Walk around in the flower garden and see how many different animals and insects you can spot,” instructed Mr. Jones. After about ten minutes Mr. Jones called the children back.  “Well, what did you kids see?” Both children started talking at once.  “Whoa!  Slow down.  How about one at a time, starting with Billy,” laughed Mr. Jones. Counting on his fingers, Billy began, “I saw a bird, an ant, and ah… a bee, and a spider, ah … bug with a jillion legs…” “That was a centipede, Billy,” interrupted Mary, “and there were at least four different kinds of birds.” “I’m not finished,” frowned Billy.  “And I saw a spider… oops… I already said that.  Oh yeah!  I saw our cat, Felix!” Shutting her eyes, Mary began to recall, “I saw four kinds of birds, three different beetles, one green and one brown grasshopper, four different colored caterpillars, two butterflies, a red ant and a black ant, ladybugs, bees, wasps, three kinds of spiders, a couple of flies, some mosquitoes, two centipedes, and of course Felix!” “Wow, you guys did great,” explained Mr. Jones.  “If I had given you more time, you would have probably found even more.  God created a huge number of different life forms in the air, in and on the earth, and in the sea.  More than a million different animal species have been discovered, and millions of different kinds of insects.  Scientists think that there are still thousands of creatures to be found!”  “What is a species, Dad?”  asked Mary. “That’s a hard question, Mary.  Scientists can’t seem to agree on exactly what a species is.  It is usually a kind of creature that can only have babies with another like itself.” “So those two grasshoppers I saw are different species?” “Well, they could be,” answered Mr. Jones.  “However, they might also be the same kind of a grasshopper with different colors.  These differences are what some scientists call ‘variation in kind.’” “This book tells how many species of some creatures have been found.  Scientists have named over 10,000 species of bees, wasps and ants.  There are over 110,000 species of butterflies and moths, and wow … over...

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Stars

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

On a clear night, an unaided observer can see somewhere around 2000 stars.  With a telescope multitudes more become visible.  How many are there in all?  No one really knows, and yet the Bible records God’s promise to Abraham thousands of years ago:  “In blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is upon the sea shore” (Gen. 22:17).  Just as no man could ever count the grains of sand on the sea shore, none could count the stars.  But the bible says that God not only numbers them, but calls them all by name. Though the stars all look much alike to the human eye, scientific studies based on light analysis show that they differ from one another in size, composition, and distance.  Scientists have grouped and categorized them according to their brightness and assumed surface temperature.  These categories range from blue-white (bright, hot) to red (cool, dim).  The categories are not distinct, however, and the dividing lines seem to be rather arbitrary.  Even our estimates of distances which are frequently based upon star brightness are speculative since we can only measure directly out a very short way into the universe.  We are only beginning to learn about our universe, but long before modern telescopes and other sophisticated instruments, the apostle Paul recognized the fact that stars differ from one another.  In 1 Cor. 15:41 he wrote, “One star differs from another star in glory.” Where did all these fantastic stars come from?  Evolutionists have come up with a very elaborate story describing the evolution of stars – yet it is merely speculation and is based upon many assumptions.  The Bible too has an explanation.  In Genesis 1:16 it says, “He made the stars also.”  That’s all, as if an after-thought.  “Oh, yes.  He made the stars too!”  Isn’t that characteristic of our God?  Myriads and myriads of stars, and just a simple statement of fact.  Is anything too difficult for God?  Then He goes on to describe in detail the object of His central concern – man.  David said, “When I consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy finger, the moon and the stars which Thou hast ordained; what is man that Thou dost take thought of him?  And the son of man that Thou dost care for him?”  (Ps. 8:3-4).  To God, it is not the stars that give Him great pleasure – it is man.  We are the recipients of His special love and concern.  What a privilege! (For more information see Henry Morris.  1984. The Biblical Basis of Modern Science)   By Dave Nutting This was published as an article in the November/December 1988 Think and Believe. Please call our office or email us at aoi@discovercreation.org for additional resources on these...

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Hurrah for Ants!

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

Many of us are familiar with the children’s counting song, “The ants go marching one by one…” Scientists have now discovered that at least some species of ants do appear to be counting their steps when they go marching out in search of food.  After training some desert ants to look for food in a specific location, scientists investigated how the ants could consistently locate the same source of food with seeming ease. It is known that ants will leave scent markers to guide their nest mates back to a food source. This is a rather laborious process, however, and slows the ants down.  The scientists glued extensions on the legs of some ants, lengthening their strides. When these stilt-walking ants were released to search for food, they started out in the right direction, but overshot the food source every time.  Scientists then cut the legs off other ants at the first joint, shortening their stride. Again the ants were released to search for food. This time they stopped short of the food source. The scientists concluded the scout probably lays a scent trail initially, but then the workers memorize the number of steps needed to arrive at the food. This is surprising evidence of relatively complicated communication from such a tiny creature.  Ants have a variety of ways to tell each other not only of food, but also warn the colony of danger. As mentioned above, scents, or pheromones, are an integral part of ant communication. Weaver ants have two scent glands in their abdomens and four more in their heads. They can release one or more of these chemicals at a time to convey a variety of messages. Entomologists estimate they can employ between 10 and 20 chemical “phrases” or “words” to communicate with their nest mates. These pheromone messages may be left on a hard surface or released into the air. Weaver ants also appear to use their feces to mark their territory. It is suspected there are scent components at work here, too.  A majority of species also communicate with sound. They can produce a high pitched squeak by rubbing a thin scraper located on their waist against a series of tiny parallel ridges on the adjacent abdomen. The signal is barely audible to humans. The squeaking is used for a variety of messages. Ironically, the ants are not influenced by the audible sound of the signal, but rather by the portion of the vibrations that come to them through the soil.  Ants have amazingly complicated communication systems. Are these the product of random chance, or complex by design? We don’t have to guess; God has already told us “look to the ant” (Prov. 6) for instruction. We can only add, “Hurrah! Hurrah!” By Joyce Trump Please call our office or email us at aoi@discovercreation.org for additional resources on these...

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Cheetahs: Killing Machines? Science or Philosophy?

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

(The following quote by evolutionist, Richard Dawkins, was sent to us for comments by Elisabeth Rohloff.  She was taking AOI’s intern program via correspondence.  Dr. Korow, a veterinarian who completed our intern program, shares his thoughts.  Editor) Dawkin’s Challenge:“Cheetahs. . . appear to be well designed to kill antelopes.  The teeth, claws, eyes, nose, leg muscles, backbone and brain of a cheetah are all precisely what we should expect if God’s purpose in designing cheetahs was to maximize deaths among antelopes.  Conversely, if we reverse-engineer an antelope we find equally impressive evidence of design for precisely the opposite end: the survival of antelopes and starvation among cheetahs.  It is as though cheetahs had been designed by one deity and antelopes by a rival deity.  Alternatively, if there is only one Creator who made the tiger and the lamb, the cheetah and the gazelle, what is He playing at?  Is He a sadist who enjoys spectator blood sports?” Korow’s Response:  There are really two issues involved with this discussion.  First, is this a scientific issue or a philosophical one?  Second, what is Dawkins assuming about the creationist view of the origin of predation? I believe this type of argument distorts God’s character.  It assumes an intentional, first-choice design by God for the predator-prey relationship of the cheetah and antelope.  A cheetah’s predatory design is not specific for an antelope only, but any creature compatible with its diet.  The skillful survival adaptations of the antelope aren’t just because of cheetahs.  This is truly a philosophical endeavor – further spinning the issue by bringing the supernatural into the equation.  Because of the nonscientific origin of the question, only a nonscientific, speculative, answer is possible. Since we have no specimen of the originally designed cheetahs or antelope prior to the Fall, there is no way to compare them with living animals.  Thus Dawkin’s argument falls outside the realm of true science.  However, if we accept the Biblical account, there was a real Creation and a real Fall in which the whole of creation groans (Rom. 8:22); we know something drastic happened in the past to God’s original creation.  This cannot be measured by science. The Bible tells us (Is. 11:6-9, 65:25) that relationships in the future new heavens and new earth will be quite different from today’s.  This might be similar to the original environment prior to Adam’s sin.  The wolf and the lamb will feed together; the lion will eat straw like an ox.  We understand that today a lion could not break down the cellulose in plant matter, because it lacks the enzyme cellulase.  However ruminants, like cows, do just fine with their 4 stomachs plus proper enzymes.  One thought would be that lions/cheetahs were herbivores originally, and that claws/canine teeth either weren’t present or simply were not used at that time.  Lions/cheetahs may have lost the ability to produce cellulase. ...

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Brown Pelicans – Fishing, Flying Wonders

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Kid's Think & Believe Too! | 0 comments

The Jones family was crossing Galveston Bay by Galveston, Texas on the car ferry. They had left their car on the parking deck and climbed the stairs to the observation deck. “Mom and Dad! Look!” Billy pointed and shouted. “A big bird just crashed into the water!” “It didn’t crash, Billy,” laughed his mother, Mrs. Jones. “That is a Brown Pelican, and it is fishing. Watch … it just tipped its beak up and swallowed a fish.” “You mean he caught a fish?” asked Billy. “Yes, Billy,” said his father. “Pelicans are mainly fish-eaters, although some have been known to also eat some shellfish, usually shrimp.” “They are a big bird, so it must take a lot of fish to keep them alive,” said Mary. “You are right Mary. It is a large bird, although of the eight species of pelicans, the Brown Pelican is actually the smallest. It is 42 to 54 inches (106 – 137 cm) long, weighs 6 to 12 pounds (2.75 – 5.5 kg) and has a wingspan of 6 to 8.2 feet (1.83 – 2.5 m). They need to eat about four pounds (1.81 kg) of fish a day to stay healthy.” “If there are 8 different kinds of pelicans, how do you know these are Brown Pelicans?” asked Mary. “Brown Pelicans have chestnut-and-white necks, white heads with pale yellow crowns and gray-brown bodies,” replied Mr. Jones. “But Dad, I want to know how they are catching fish!” exclaimed Billy. “Okay, Billy,” chuckled Mr. Jones. “Brown Pelicans are found along the ocean shores and not on inland lakes. They are the only pelicans that plunge from the air into the water to catch its food. God gave them very good eyesight. Flying as high as 60 to 70 feet (8.28 – 21.33 m), they can spot a school of small fish or even a single fish in the water below. Diving steeply, the pelican plunges headfirst into the water, going completely or only partly under – depending on how high they dive – then comes up with a mouthful of fish in a special flexible pouch beneath its bill.” “That has to hurt! Water is not that soft. It hurts my head when I dive headfirst into a swimming pool from the high springboard,” added Mary. “Well Mary, God thought of that too. He designed the Brown Pelican with air sacs beneath their skin that softens the impact and helps them float back to the surface. The pouch holds the catch of fish until the water is squeezed out. Their pouch actually holds more water than their stomachs … 3 gallons (11.4 l) in the pouch compared to only 1 gallon (3.8 l) in the stomach. Once the water is drained out, the pelican throws its head back and swallows the fish. Sometimes the adult pelican will carry the fish in their throats and...

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Bio-Inspiration

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

Bio-inspiration means that manufacturers and engineers are inspired by the tremendous design of living creatures to make useful human “inventions.” For instance, Velcro was copied from the hooks of the common burr which is frequently picked up in the fur of a dog. Sonar and radar were inspired by bats and dolphins. Very recently a new fabric-adhesive was inspired by the foot of the gecko lizard. The gecko’s ability to walk upside down on the ceiling and even on glass surfaces was falsely believed to be due to tiny suction cups. Using scanning electron microscopes, researchers realized the gecko has about 2 billion filaments per square centimeter of toe space. These fibers are so small that they form molecular bonds with the surface. The force needed to pull the gecko off of glass with its amazing “stick-toit” system is almost 300 pounds. Yet, the gecko can run across the ceiling with ease. (To read more about the gecko, see The Grand Design of a Gecko) The new fabric-adhesive which mimics the gecko’s system was designed by Ron Fearing and colleagues of the University of California, Berkeley. According to the website, Fearing’s adhesive consists of 40 million microfibers per square centimeter and is meant to mimic the molecular bonding system of the gecko. A glove made with this fabric could hold up a full grown man on a glass wall. Wow, my son who teaches rock climbing could really use a pair of those gloves. I am not sure how he would pry himself off the rock, however! The gecko just does it naturally by the special way it moves its feet! The same website also mentions that the thorny devil lizard is being studied for another application. The Australian lizard’s foot was put into water. Immediately, its system of rapid water transport dispersed water from its foot to its back and into its mouth. Even walking across damp sand allows this lizard to absorb precious moisture. The researcher hopes to copy this amazingly-designed system to develop water capturing devices in desert regions. My brain had fun with this! I could think of other usages such as any application that needs to wick away water. Perhaps the thorny-lizard technology could be used to absorb water overnight from moist ground to refill backpackers’ water bottles with pure water. I wonder what the lizard would do if its foot was in salt water? Is it actually capillary action or would it be able to absorb just the pure water portion? If so, could a desalination system (portable or major) be patterned after this unique lizard?  I may be out to sea with these ideas, but that’s how my brain fires. However if I am stranded while “out to sea,” or if I’m lost in the woods or desert, it sure would be nice to have a pure water-producing system copied from the...

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Creation/Evolution – The Real Conflict

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

What exactly is the point of conflict between creation and evolution? Some say there is no conflict because they think God created by evolution. Others have never thought it through. In this article I want to clarify the point at which creation and evolution are in conflict. Evolutionists believe that the first living cell somehow popped into existence and reproduced, bringing to life other cells that were somewhat different from the first cell. They say that these gave life to other cells that had still greater differences, etc. Eventually people evolved. The Bible however, does not say that God created a single first cell. Rather, He created a number of different kinds of animals: birds, creatures of the sea, and land animals. The land animals are summed up in Genesis 1:24-25: “‘And God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind. And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds,and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.’” Note the words “according to their kinds.” Had God just created a first kind and left the origin of all the other kinds to evolution, He should have left out these words. Instead, He included them; and not just once. From Genesis 1 verse 11 through verse 25, I find the words “According to their kinds,” seven times; and “according to its kind” once. Whether living things only reproduced according to their kinds, or reproduced across kinds is the big point of conflict between evolution and creation. Evolutionists don’t believe that animals etc. have reproduced only according to their kinds. They believe that a first single cell reproduced in enough ways to gradually give life to all the different kinds of plants and animals. This is an important point of conflict that goes beyond whether animals first came about by spontaneous generation or creation. The reason is that evolution is not really about origin. It is a theory of what happened after the imagined origin of a first living cell. Evolutionists believe that accidental, random mutations happened to the DNA code causing plants, animals and us to evolve to our present condition. In essence, evolutionists believe that mutations wrote the entire DNA code! Evolutionists assume that, although most random mutations are harmful and can cause damage, some might provide an improvement. They trust natural selection to weed out damaging changes and enhance the good ones. The DNA code, however, is not random but carefully and intelligently written. Therefore, random changes of any significance tend to make it worse, not improve it! If you believe that random mutations made all living things, put that concept to the test. Lean your...

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Brain’s Complexity “Is Beyond Anything Imagined”

Posted on Dec 20, 2013 in Think & Believe Newsletter | 0 comments

(by Brian Thomas, M.S., in The Design and Complexity of the Cell, by Jeffrey P. Tomkins,2012, Institute for Creation Research, p. 65 (Used by permission, ©2012 Institute forCreation Research. All Rights Reserved. www.icr.org) The brain has for a long time been compared to man-made computers in its astounding ability to process, store, and route information. But a new imaging technique has revealed that just one brain’s connections and capacities far outnumber and outpace those of all the world’s computers. And this makes the question of the origin of brains that much more difficult for naturalistic explanations. The imaging technique, called array tomography, detected light emitted by mouse nervous tissue that had been bioengineered to produce proteins that glow. Additional luminous chemicals were added, and these attached to specific areas in the mouse brains, adding more colors and allowing for the detection of much more information. New computer software processed all the data to produce stunning three-dimensional images of never-before-seen brain cell connections. A study was published in the journal Neuron to showcase the usefulness of array tomography, but the technical paper also provided broad implications for neurobiology. Array tomography could “resolve fine details at the level of synapses,”(1) allowing researchers to view the highest resolution of detail among nerve images yet. They could see individual synapses, the tiny connection points that link nerve cells together, as well as their different types and subtypes. “[The researchers] found that the brain’s complexity is beyond anything they’d imagined,”according to an article appearing in the Health tech section of the online news source CNET.(2) For instance, they found that the total number of synapses in a brain roughly equaled the number of stars in 1,500 Milky Way galaxies! And memory patterns and tiny on/off switches, which were long thought to reside in the larger neuron cell bodies, were instead found to be smaller than the tiny synapse connections. Each of the neurons imaged in the study serves thousands of synapses. Stanford University professor and senior study author Stephen Smith said that “one synapse may contain on the order of 1,000 molecular-scale switches. A single human brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth.”(2) This research multiplies the brain’s overall computing power far beyond what was previously known. The more complicated a system is, the stronger it argues for having been intentionally designed. And brains certainly qualify, despite assertions that random-acting natural processes somehow assembled them. In these cases, the burden of proof lies heavily on those who insist that such systems are not in fact what they plainly appear to be: the products of intentional ingenious design. The God of the Bible stands as the most tenable source of the specified complexity of interconnected neurons upon which human and much animal life depends. Until a naturalistic alternative can explain how a self-healing, adaptive, cosmic-sized Internet of...

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Wonderfully Made

Posted on Dec 18, 2013 in Marianis from the Front | 1 comment

  Note: If you haven’t yet heard, we are excited to announce that we are pregnant and expecting our first child in June, 2014! We praise God for answering our prayers and giving us the blessing of children! There is something mysterious and wonderful about having a baby growing inside of you. He or she is about the size of a pea pod now, and it still seems incredibly surreal. Pregnancy still felt like something my imagination had conjured up, until we got to have an ultrasound and hear our little one’s heartbeat. My teary eyes saw little arm and leg buds wiggling, and our amazed ears heard the whooshing of a tiny heart beating. We could see the silhouette of this little person inside my belly! If I could look inside now, I would see a little nose and other facial features, tiny arms with hands and fingers, and little legs. His or her joints are mostly formed, and small fingerprints are forming. And within my baby’s wee body ribs and vocal chords will soon be developing.  Bones are hardening.[1] This little person is looking like a baby! When I consider all this, I marvel and am amazed at the design of our Creator God. Soon after we found out that we were expecting, my husband and I watched “Fearfully and Wonderfully Made,” a lecture by Dr. David Menton. This is an excellent explanation of how the many detailed stages of the reproduction process, from fertilization to delivery, are examples of design. There are countless mechanisms and processes of development that, if they developed gradually, would cause the death of either the mother or the baby. To say that the process of evolution slowly fixed the problems just doesn’t make sense in light of the disastrous effects of something being just a little bit wrong. In general, it happens so perfectly that it can only be attributed to a designer. As I give thanks to my gracious God for the honor and privilege of caring for this tiny creation, I am reminded of the words of David in Psalm 139: “For You formed my inward parts; You wove me in my mother’s womb.  I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Wonderful are Your works, And my soul knows it very well.  My frame was not hidden from You, When I was made in secret, And skillfully wrought in the depths of the earth; Your eyes have seen my unformed substance; And in Your book were all written The days that were ordained for me, When as yet there was not one of them.” (Ps. 139:13-15) To God be the glory, great things He has done   Aimee Mariani If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha...

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